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Access to Justice: Remedies

This study builds on preexisting studies by compiling and updating information on remedies available under Article 9(4) of the Aarhus Convention.The most extensive of these prior studies is the 2007 Milieu Report, which provided a comprehensive overview of access to justice in twenty-five countries. Another important resource is the NGO Justice and Environment’s recent Report on Access to Justice in Environmental Matters. This report takes an in-depth look at the status of and difficulties with the implementation of the third pillar of the Aarhus Convention in ten countries. The contributing authors are representatives of NGOs active in those countries. The older butstill excellent book Access to Justice in Environmental Matters in the EU, edited by JonasEbbesson, provides useful background information on sixteen legal systems in Englishand French.The present study focuses on the narrow topic of remedies in twenty-nine partiesto the Aarhus Convention, plus Ireland. It briefly outlines the administrative and judicialprocedures in each country and describes the available procedural remedies. It thenoffers conclusions and raises issues for further inquiry. This study does not include theEECCA countries, which are being separately studied by others, or many of the Balkancountries, about which little secondary material was available.

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